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Most-read articles are from the articles published in 2021 during the last three month.

Original Papers
Quantitative Study of Butterfly Diversity in Wando Quercus acuta Forest Over 5 Years (2017-2021)
Sanghun Lee, Na-Hyun Ahn
GEO DATA. 2023;5(2):55-59.   Published online June 20, 2023
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  • 93 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
This study presents the long-term quantitative data on butterflies in Wando Arboretum, which represents the only warm-temperate forest located in the southernmost part of South Korea. This arboretum has significant academic value as approximately 770 species of rare woody plants or herbs, such as the Japanese evergreen oak (Quercus acuta), found in warm temperate zones grow under natural conditions here. In this project, the butterflies in this region were studied due to their sensitivity to temperature changes. The study was conducted from March-April to October-November over 5 years (2017-2021) in the region dominated by Japanese evergreen oak. We found 1,743 individuals of 47 butterfly species belonging to five families. The acquired butterfly data could serve as a reference for the further development of a network-oriented database for assessing temporal climate changes.
Dataset on the Distribution of Ecosystem-Disturbing Plants in the Republic of Korea
Man-Seok Shin, Yu Jin Hong, Sanghun Lee
GEO DATA. 2023;5(2):66-76.   Published online June 27, 2023
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  • 59 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
In this study, we presented distribution data for 16 plant species designated as ecosystem-disturbing species by the Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Korea. These data include location information for the ecosystem-disturbing plants from four survey projects (Monitoring of invasive alien species designated by the wildlife protection act, Nationwide survey of non-native species in Korea, The 3rd and 4th national ecosystem survey) conducted by two agencies (National Institute of Ecology and National Institute of Environmental Research) between 2014 and 2021. Additionally, the data includes habitat environmental characteristics and administrative district information on the survey sites of the ecosystem-disturbing plants. These data have a high potential for utilization as basic information for natural environmental policies and related research by identifying the habitat characteristics of invasive alien species.
Distribution Characteristics of the Clithon retropictus in the Estuarine Wetland
Yeounsu Chu, Pyoungbeom Kim
GEO DATA. 2023;5(2):60-65.   Published online June 12, 2023
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
This study analyzed the distribution characteristics of Clithon retropictus (C. retropictus), an endangered species, using data from the benthic macroinvertebrate survey on estuarine ecosystems conducted in 2021-2022. A total of 5,906 individuals of C. retropictus were identified in 60 estuarine wetlands located along the eastern coast, southern coast, and Jeju area. It was confirmed to be a dominant species in certain estuarine wetlands such as Obangcheon, Gohyeoncheon, and Osucheon. The southern coast of Gyeongsangnam-do was identified as a major distribution area, indicating the need for systematic conservation and management of C. retropictus in this region. Furthermore, as a basic survey of benthic macroinvertebrates is currently being conducted in Jeolla-do, it is expected that nationwide distribution data for C. retropictus will be obtained.
Comparative Study of Machine Learning and Deep Learning Models Applied to Data Preprocessing Methods for Dam Inflow Prediction
Youngsik Jo, Kwansue Jung
GEO DATA. 2023;5(2):92-102.   Published online June 30, 2023
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  • 34 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
In this study, we employed representative machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) models previously utilized in the fields of rainfall and runoff analysis in the water resources sector. We not only performed hyperparameter tuning of the models but also considered the characteristics of the model and the combination and preprocessing (such as lag-time and moving average) of meteorological and hydrological data. We then compared and evaluated the performance of the models according to various scenarios of data characteristics and ML & DL model combinations for predicting daily water inflow. To accomplish this, we utilized meteorological and hydrological data collected from 1974 to 2021 in the Soyang River Dam Basin to examine 1) precipitation, 2) inflow, and 3) meteorological data as primary independent variables. We then employed a total of 36 scenario combinations as input data for ML & DL, applying a) lag-time, b) moving average, and c) component separation conditions for inflow. To identify the most suitable data combination characteristics and ML & DL models for predicting daily inflow, we compared and evaluated 10 different ML & DL models: 1) Linear Regression, 2) Lasso, 3) Ridge, 4) Support Vector Regression, 5) Random Forest (RF), 6) Light Gradient Boosting Model, 7) XGBoost for ML, and 8) Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) models, 9) Temporal Convolutional Network (TCN), and 10) LSTM-TCN for DL.
The Integrated Dataset for Occurrence of Odonata Species in South Korea
Sungsoo Yoon
GEO DATA. 2022;5(2):77-86.   Published online June 30, 2023
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
This study presents an integrated dataset comprising occurrence records for 102 Odonata species in South Korea. The occurrence information of the Odonata species was collected from 10 independent field survey-based datasets, spanning the period from 2014 to 2023 and provided by three agencies: National Institute of Ecology, National Institute of Environmental Research, and Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). In addition to occurrence data, the dataset includes information on the survey year, IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) Red List classification, satellite-derived spectral indices and bioclimatic variables to provide valuable insights into the survey sites and habitats of Odonata species. By integrating diverse dataset, this comprehensive Odonata dataset can contribute to the validation of habitat-related traits, enhances the national checklist information, and facilitates the identification of rarity and potential habitats for Odonata species in South Korea. The integrated Odonata dataset serves as a valuable resource for ongoing Odonata research and conservation efforts in the study area.
Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle LiDAR-based High Spatial Resolution Topographic Dataset in Russell Glacier, Greenland
Yongsik Jeong, Sungjae Lee, Seung Hee Kim, Hyun-Cheol Kim
GEO DATA. 2023;5(1):1-7.   Published online March 29, 2023
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  • 109 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Greenland contains a large continental glacier. The influence of glacier melting has been expanding due to global warming. Although regional monitoring based on satellite data is being conducted, the demand for local/specific variation observation has increased as rising climate temperature patterns in the polar region. In this study, a precise topographic dataset was created for Greenland’s Russell glacier using a small unmanned aerial vehicle (sUAV) onboarded LiDAR sensor. A precise digital surface model (DSM) was constructed based on LiDAR data obtained at an altitude of about 100 to 200 m, and DSM resampled to a 2 m sample distance was produced to confirm its applicability by comparing before-and-after variations. This study provides DSM data applied with a pre/post-processing used for the comparison analysis.
Mapping of Groundwater Pollution Vulnerability in Entire South Korea Using DRATIC Model
Won-Kyung Baek, Sung-Hwan Park, Jin-Woo Yu, Young-Woong Yoon, Hyung-Sup Jeong
GEO DATA. 2021;3(2):32-38.   Published online July 21, 2021
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  • 10 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Groundwater pollution vulnerability was mapped for entire South Korea using groundwater, topography, geology, and soil data. For this, the DRASTIC model developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency was used and the geographic information system (GIS) was used as the basic tool. This groundwater pollution vulnerability map can be usefully used as basic data for groundwater development and conservation management. The constructed data is provided as entire South Korean and regional data, respectively. In addition, in order to expand the accessibility of the data, it is converted and provided in three data formats: ASCII, ArcGIS Grid, and GeoTIFF. All these satellite image analysis data can be downloaded free of charge from the Environment Big Data Platform website (
Original Papers
Long-Term Change and Analysis of the Sedimentary Environment of Dadae Beach Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Joo Bong Jeong
GEO DATA. 2023;5(2):110-117.   Published online June 30, 2023
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Dadae Beach, located at the Nakdong river estuary, has been continuously evolving over the years, and this is the result of complex interactions between natural and artificial factors. In particular, in the case of Dadae Beach, located at the estuary of the Nakdong river estuary, it is located at the boundary between the river and the ocean, and it is an environment in which various deposition mechanisms operate. It is a very difficult research task to analyze the beach evolution mechanism, and a long-term study using precise measurement methods is required. Therefore, in this study, precision unmanned aerial surveys were conducted three times (2015, 2019, and 2021) for 5 years to identify the sedimentary characteristics of Dadae Beach, and the sedimentary environment was analyzed through the analysis of surface sediment texture characteristics. Seasonal waves and winds caused by the East Asian monsoon climate are the main mechanisms for the sedimentation of Dadae Beach, and finegrained sediments are distributed throughout the beach. In addition, the formation of sandbar, which arose rapidly due to artificial influences such as the construction of estuary banks in the past, is a major factor in the evolution of large-scale beaches. This study is meaningful in identifying the mechanism of beach evolution and presenting quantitative analysis results through comparison of precision aerial survey data over a long period of time.
The Introduction of Naju Ground Observation Site Measurement Data and Web Service for Validation of Satellite Value-Added Products
Jong-Sung Ha, Seung-taek Jeong, Hyun-Ok Kim, Sun-Gu Lee, Dae-won Jeong, Jaeil Cho, Seo Ho Shin, Kil-Ja Kim, Dong-Kwan Kim, Jong-Min Yeom
GEO DATA. 2023;5(2):103-109.   Published online June 27, 2023
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) has collaborated with Jeollanamdo Agricultural Research & Extension Services and Chonnam National University to establish a ground observation tower for evaluating the value-added products (such as surface reflectance and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and improving algorithms of domestic development satellites (Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3, 3A and 7). The ground measurement tower, installed at the Jeollanamdo Naju ground observation site (NGOS), constantly observes surface hyperspectral reflectance and atmospheric information, providing the advantage of real-time algorithm validation improvement when satellite acquires images of the site. The NGOS operates hyperspectral radiometer equipment (6 types), meteorological observation equipment (5 types), sky radiometer (1 type), and eddy flux observation equipment (2 types), along with a web service for display and data processing. The ground observation site equipment that is being installed and operated can be utilized in various fields such as carbon circle, agriculture, environment, atmosphere and climate change, in addition to validation of satellite value-added products. This study aims to introduce KARI NGOS for user data sharing and highlight the characteristics of the measured data.
The Funga of Higher Fungi of Mt. Jeombong in Korea: A Survey of Mongolian Oak Forest in 2017
Seung Won Lee, Juo Choi, Ho-Yeon Won, Young Sang Lee, Dongsu Yu, Areum Han, Hwa-Yong Lee, Hee-Su Lee, Ju-Kyeong Eo
GEO DATA. 2023;5(1):40-48.   Published online March 30, 2023
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This research was conducted to determine the biodiversity of higher fungi at the supersite of Mt. Jeombong from July to October 2017 during the second long-term ecology research by the National Institute of Ecology under the management of the Ministry of Environment of Korea. Forty-three families, 74 genera, and 130 species of higher fungi were found within the permanent square area of Mt. Jeombong and a 10 m radius of the ecological flux tower. Russulaceae (54 species, 21.9%), Amanitaceae (17 species, 6.9%), and Boletaceae (17 species, 6.9%) were the top three species taxa found in mycorrhizal mushrooms. Mycenaceae (nine species, 8.5%), Polyporaceae (11 species, 4.5%), and Strophariaceae (11 species, 4.5%) were the top three species taxa found in saprophytic mushrooms. These results were analyzed and compared with those of previous fungal mushroom studies.
Establishment of Geographic Information Data of Greenland Glacier Using Fixed-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
Sungjae Lee, Seung Hee Kim, Hyun-Cheol Kim
GEO DATA. 2023;5(1):34-39.   Published online March 28, 2023
  • 492 View
  • 23 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
In recent decades, the Greenland glacier has experienced significant changes in the environment near the surface due to the increase in surface melting on glacier. In order to quantify these environmental changes, precise spatial information data is necessary. Although digital elevation models using satellite data are widely used to secure data, it is difficult to observe the polar regions by satellite alone due to limitations such as spatial resolution, revisit period, and weather. To overcome these shortcomings, many field geographic surveys using unmanned aerial vehicles are being conducted. In this study, a field survey was conducted on September 14, 2021 to produce high-resolution spatial information in the Russell glacier area located in the Greenland Kangerlussuaq. By matching the acquired aerial image data, orthorectification image with a spatial resolution of about 13 cm/pixel and a digital surface model are produced. This data is expected to be utilized as basic spatial data for Russell glacier runoff and topographical changes, and it is expected to be used as data that can grasp changes in time and spatial through continuous data accumulation.
Investigation of Cicada Density in Urban Park
Jae-Yeon Kang, Yong-Su Kwon
GEO DATA. 2023;5(2):87-91.   Published online June 30, 2023
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In this study, we investigated the occurrence patterns and densities of cicadas in 18 urban parks in Seoul, Korea. Considering the ecological characteristics of cicadas that occured only in summer, the temporal changes of cicadas were investigated every week from June to September in 2017. Cicadas densities were measured using the final instar exuviae of cicada, which showed distinct morphological differences between species. A total of 7,369 cicada exuviae of six species were collected, and the dominant species in urban park were Hyalessa fuscata (44.8%) and Cryptotympana atrata (41.7%). There was no clear difference in the pattern of occurrence by species, but it occurred most frequently around August when the rainy season ended.
Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Seagrass Habitat Based on Remote Sensing Data: Focusing on Wan Island
Jung Yoon Yeo, Joo Bong Jeong, Jong Kyu Kim
GEO DATA. 2022;4(2):23-36.   Published online June 30, 2022
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In May 2019, UAV photogrammetry using drones (unmanned aircraft) was conducted to investigate the spatial distribution characteristics of the seagrass habitat in Wan Island. Wan Is. sea was divided into 3 geographical areas (Site A, B, C) by referring to the seagrass distribution identified by the National Coastal seagrass forest precision survey (Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries, 2015), and contour lines were extracted from grid depth data. In addition, a 3-D benthic topographic map using DTM (Digital Terrain Model) was created to understand the characteristics and slope of the benthic topographic map. Through the analysis of the seagrass distribution results and the water depth results, it was confirmed that the boundary between the seagrass distribution in the outer and coastal areas converges to different water depth limits (within 10 m, and within 5 m), which is estimated to be based on the characteristics of the outer sea area. As a result of the analysis of the benthic topography, it was confirmed that the slope of the well-covered distribution was relatively gentle below 0.2~0.8 degrees, and the well-covered distribution was limited to the vicinity of the boundary where the slope changed rapidly. As a result of comparing the area of the seagrass distribution survey in 2015 and 2019, it was confirmed that the area was 238.4 ha and 1,070.9 ha, respectively, which was 4.5 times more widerly when performing Drone survey than diving survey. In order to understand the surrounding environment of the seagrass distribution site, satellite image data and license fishing ground information map at the time of drone shooting (May 2019) were checked. As a result, seaweed (Kelp, Sea mustard seaweed, Seaweed, Seaweed fulvescens, etc.) and shellfish (Abalone) were densely distributed, and most of the facilities except for Seaweed fulvescens farms were separated from their habitat. Drone survey confirmed Zostera marina, Zostera caulescens, and Zostera japonica in Wan Is., but no Phyllospadix iwatensis and Halophila nipponica were identified in 2015. It was confirmed that there was a limit to classifying the types of vegetation due to the characteristics of Phyllospadix iwatensis attached to the rock substrate, and in the case of Halophila nipponica with short leaves of 2 to 3 cm, they were not exposed to the water even at low tide, so there was a limit to detection using drones. These research results are expected to be useful data for grasping the characteristics of a wide range of seagrass habitats in other seas in the future.
Original Paper
Meteorological and Sea Surface Water Measurement Data from Icebreaker Research Vessel ARAON for 2020-2021 Arctic Research Expeditions
Sungjae Lee, Hyun-Cheol Kim, Dongseob Shin, Suhwan Kim, HyunGyu Choi
GEO DATA. 2023;5(1):26-33.   Published online March 28, 2023
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Since its construction in 2010, the icebreaker ARAON has been conducting regular polar field surveys to observe changes in the atmosphere and marine environment in polar regions. The Arctic Ocean, a major research area, is directly affected by changes in the ocean, atmosphere and energy circulation system due to the continuous decrease in sea ice. During the Arctic summer season, when sea ice becomes smaller and thinner, the ARAON passes through East Sea, Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea, and Beaufort Sea to investigate the marine environment on the high latitude high seas. The Arctic Ocean is important not only for scientific research due to climate change, but also for economic research such as undersea energy, mineral resources, and Northern Sea route. However, it is difficult to access the Arctic and conduct long-term and continuous field surveys. ARAON carries out Arctic research voyages using various research equipment, and the most basic observation among them is meteorological information and sea water observation data. Weather data include solar radiation, atmospheric temperature, humidity, wind speed and wind direction, and seawater observations include sea water temperature, salinity, conductivity and fluorescence substances. In addition, three-dimensional location information of the research line was obtained. The data will be used as inspection data for satellite data and polar field survey data.
Atmospheric and Surface Seawater CO2 Measurements on R/V ISABU in the Western North Pacific in the Summer of 2018
Seon-Eun Lee, Sosul Cho
GEO DATA. 2021;3(3):8-15.   Published online September 30, 2021
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  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
The ocean takes up approximately 24% of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted into the atmosphere in a year. The oceanic CO2 uptake shows regional and seasonal differences depending on physical and chemical characteristics of seawater and biological activities (such as CO2 fixation). In the tropical Western North Pacific, the surface water temperature is high, the supply of deep water is limited, and tropical cyclones usually pass in summer. We investigated atmospheric and sea surface CO2 concentrations in this area using the continuous underway pCO2 measuring system equipped on the Research Vessel ISABU of Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology for about 21 days from August 29 to September 19, 2018. During the cruise, 9,367 CO2 data were obtained from this measuring system with temperature, salinity, and GPS information. Higher CO2 concentrations of the surface seawater than those of the atmosphere were observed in the areas of 22°N-23.5°N and 29°N-35°N where CO2 was emitted into the atmosphere, while most of the areas between 17.5°N and 20.5°N were sinks for the atmospheric CO2. This dataset can be used for future research on the distribution of partial pressure of carbon dioxide over the global ocean surface.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Sea Surface CO2 Measurements on the R/V ISABU in the Northwestern Pacific in October 2019
    Nayeon Kang, Sosul Cho, Seon-Eun Lee
    GEO DATA.2022; 4(3): 8.     CrossRef